What is Fiber Optics and How it Works
The medium and the technology which is associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic fiber is called fiber optics. For high performance data networking and long distance, fiber optics is used.
Another common use of fiber optics is for telecommunication services such as television, telephones and internet. Many telecom giants use fiber optics. For example, google uses fiber optics in their fiber services.
The main advantage of using fiber optic cables over copper cables is its higher bandwidth and fast speed in transmission.
One fiber optic cable can contain a lot of fibers. Another glass layer called cladding surrounds the glass fiber core. Another layer called the buffer tube protects the cladding, and a jacket layer which is the final acts a protective layer for the individual strand.
A fiber optic cable can contain a varying number of these glass fibers -- from a few up to a couple hundred. Surrounding the glass fiber core is another glass layer called cladding. A layer known as a buffer tube protects the cladding, and a jacket layer acts as the final protective layer for the individual strand.
How fiber optics works
In the form of light particles, fiber optics transmit data. Incoming light is bent at a certain level through the different refractive index of the glass fiber core and the cladding each. Light signals reflect off the core and cladding in a series of zigzag bounces when sent through the fiber optic cable, thereby adhering to a process known as total internal reflection. Due to the denser glass layers, light signals do not travel at the speed of light. Instead they travel about 30% slower than the regular speed of light. Fiber optic transmission sometimes requires repeaters at distant intervals to regenerate the optical signal by converting it to an electrical signal and processing that electrical signal and retransmitting the optical signal.
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